• Element of Reading

    Description of Component
    (Title I, Part b, Subpart 1, Section 1208)

    SBRR Instructional Strategies for Implementation

    Phonemic Awareness

    The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds in spoken words.

    Phonemic awareness instruction begins with rhyming to assess what sounds students know. Letters are introduced to begin to develop the alphabetic principle in students that is connected to the reading success predictor of letter sound knowledge. Instruction focuses on the connection between letters and sounds.  Students soon begin to segment and blend phonemes using the letters of the alphabet.*
    • Phoneme manipulation
    • Sound blending
    • Segmenting
    • Identifying environmental sounds
    • Rhyming


    The relationship between the letters of the write language and the sounds of spoken language.

    Phonics instruction is explicit in teaching students to blend sounds to decode words. Specific modeling is used to develop a sound blending routine in students. Students extend their phonics knowledge and ability to read by learning common spelling patterns. Every phonics lesson provides opportunities for students to manipulate letters and sounds to build words. Every day students practice spelling words and decoding words using target letter-sound relationships.*
    • Letter by letter sound segmentation and sound blending
    • Focus on word parts
    • Focus on structural analysis


    The words students must know to read effectively.

    Teachers provide students with direct instruction in word meaning and word learning strategies.  Vocabulary words are introduced to students prior to reading each story to increase students’ vocabulary and comprehension of the story. Students work in small groups and read material of various genres to increase their vocabulary.*

    • Direct and explicit vocabulary instruction
    • Pre-teach vocabulary
    • Semantic and syntactic clues to meaning
    • Analyze word structure
    • Use computer technology
    • Implicit instruction
    • Read aloud to students
    • Independent reading
    • Exposure to multiple genres and content area materials


    The capacity to read text accurately and quickly.

    Students read material at their independent level every day to increase their reading fluency. Students are taught to connect text fluently. Specific strategies for building fluency include rereading familiar text, partner reading, choral reading, reader’s theater, and modeled fluent reading.*

    • Timed quick readings
    • Repeated readings
    • Choral readings
    • Partner readings
    • Readers theater
    • Poetry reading


    The ability to understand and gain meaning from what has been read.

    Students read a variety of text to build reading comprehension. Students are taught to predict, generate questions, and recognize story structures. They learn to sequence, retell, and summarize passages they have read or have listened to monitor their comprehension. Teachers explicitly explain, model, and teach comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading narrative and expository text.  Students use graphic organizers to organize their thoughts and understanding of material they have read to better understand the text.*
    • Monitor comprehension
    • Cooperative learning
    • Graphicand semantic organizers
    • Question answering
    • Question generating
    • Summarization
    • Multiple strategies
    * Scott Foresman Reading Street 2007